China has officially announced its first overall population decline in recent years, as reported by the National Bureau of Statistics. The country had 850,000 fewer people at the end of 2022 than over the previous year, leaving a total population of 1.411.75 billion. The bureau reported that there were 9.56 million births against 10.41 million deaths. This decline can be attributed to China’s aging society and the plunging birthrate.
The strict one-child policy, which only officially ended in 2016, has also contributed to this decline. The policy was implemented in 1979 as a measure to control population growth and was enforced for over three decades. It stipulated that most urban couples were only allowed to have one child, while rural couples were allowed to have a second child if their first was a girl. This policy resulted in a gender imbalance, with men outnumbering women by 722.06 million to 689.69 million, as a traditional preference for male offspring to carry on the family name still persists.
Since abandoning the policy, China has sought to encourage families to have second or even third children, with little success. The Chinese government has implemented various policies to support families with multiple children, such as tax breaks, subsidies, and extended parental leave. However, the high costs of raising children in China’s cities, as well as the cultural shift towards smaller families, have made it difficult to reverse the trend of falling birth rates. The expense of raising children in China’s cities is often cited as a cause, reflecting attitudes in much of east Asia where birth rates have fallen precipitously.
China’s aging population is also a significant factor in the population decline. China’s population is aging rapidly, with a rapidly growing elderly population, and a declining number of working-age individuals to support them. The United Nations estimates that by 2050, one-fifth of China’s population will be over the age of 65. This will put a strain on China’s pension system and healthcare system, as well as its economy.
The population decline also has significant implications for China’s future economic growth. A declining population means a declining workforce and a decline in domestic consumption. This could lead to a decrease in economic growth and a decline in the standard of living for many Chinese citizens.
China has long been the world’s most populous nation, but is expected to soon be overtaken by India, if it has not already. Estimates put India’s population at more than 1.4 billion and continuing to grow. India’s population is projected to surpass China’s population by 2027, and is expected to reach 1.7 billion by 2050.
China’s population decline is a significant development that has far-reaching implications for the country’s future. The decline can be attributed to a combination of factors, including the aging population, falling birth rates, and the strict one-child policy. China’s government will need to address these issues and implement policies to support families with multiple children, as well as support for the elderly population. Failure to do so could lead to a decline in economic growth and a decline in the standard of living for many Chinese citizens.